Knee pain can affect any age group, from adolescents to the elderly. It can be caused by an injury, overuse from an activity or from degenerative arthritis.

Knee Pain


The knee joint is a complex hinged joint capable of withstanding pressures and forces beyond our body weight. The joint capsule, cartilage and ligaments stabilize the joint, while muscles generate forces allowing us to run and jump, sometimes with Olympic speed and agility.

Knee Arthritis

Common Issues

  • The most common type of arthritis affecting the knee joint is osteoarthritis.
  • Osteoarthritis is a degenerative change in the cartilage of the knee and can occur on the inner compartment (medial), the outer compartment (lateral) or under the knee cap (patellofemoral joint).
  • Overuse, age, or injury can cause this cartilage to gradually thin or wear out until pain symptoms occur.
  • These symptoms can worsen until alignment and mobility are compromised due to bone on bone contact.

Symptoms & Signs

  • Inflammation (swelling)
  • Pain and instability that limits ordinary activities such as walking and climbing stairs
  • Deformity may result, such as knock-knee or bow-legged alignment or an inability to fully extend your knee
  • Unusual knee sounds (crepitus)


  • Consultation with your physician to obtain a proper diagnosis and x-ray
  • A knee brace consultation to be fitted with a brace to off load the affected region
  • A gait assessment to determine whether foot mechanics are contributing and if custom foot orthotics would be beneficial
  • Physiotherapy to strengthen the surrounding muscles
Ligament Injuries

Ligaments are strong tissues that connect one bone to another. The knee joint has four main ligaments, that join the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). The collateral ligaments run along the sides of the joint and the cruciate ligaments cross each other inside the joint.

Common Issues

  • Collateral ligament tears are more likely trauma related while most ACL tears are non-contact injuries
  • Football, basketball, soccer and volleyball are high risk sports for an ACL injury
  • Females are 4 times more likely to suffer an ACL tear
  • Ligament injuries occur due to twisting forcefully, landing awkwardly from a jump or fall, impact from tackle football or other contact sports
  • Injuries are classified as slightly stretched (Grade 1), a partial tear (Grade 2) and a complete tear (Grade 3).

Symptoms & Signs

  • Immediate pain and instability with injury onset
  • A ‘popping’ sound or sensation is also associated with initial trauma
  • Usually painful at rest, accompanied by swelling and warmth (inflammation)
  • Pain is worsened with bending and weightbearing
  • More than one area of the knee (ligament or cartilage) can be injured in the same traumatic event


  • Consultation with your physician for a proper diagnosis which includes a MRI and physical exam
  • Treatment varies with each patient
  • Physiotherapy improves strength and reduces inflammation
  • Knee bracing stabilizes the joint and reduces pain, and may allow a return to some level of activity
  • Surgery is an option for certain populations and vocations
Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter Disease is a condition that causes pain where the patellar tendon pulls away from the top of the shinbone. People with Osgood-Schlatter Disease usually get better with rest, over the counter pain medication and time.

Common Issues

  • It is an apophysitis or irritation of the junction (growth plate) between the patellar tendon and the tibia, just below the kneecap (patella)
  • This chronic pain the most common cause of knee pain in active adolescents
  • Sometimes referred to as “jumper’s knee”
  • It typically occurs between the ages of 11 and 14
  • More common in jumping sports like volleyball and basketball
  • Often associated with tight quadriceps (thigh muscle)

Symptoms & Signs

  • Swelling.
  • Tenderness.
  • Pain just below the kneecap.
  • A hard, painful bump (new bone growth) may appear where the tendon inserts into the tibia (possibly permanent)
  • Pain may be worse in one knee than the other


  • Rest, ice and NSAIDs ( nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Reduced or refraining from activity for a period until the condition is reduced
  • Stretching the quadriceps muscles reduces tension on the patellar tendon and under the kneecap
  • Ortho-Kinetics carries a patellar tendon strap that helps relieve the tension on the growth plate
  • Our custom foot orthotics improve knee alignment and function
  • Physiotherapy will provide specific exercises to strengthen the muscles around your knee and hip
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

PFPS occurs under or around the knee cap. It can affect one or both knees.

Common Issues

  • Alignment issues and overuse cause increased pressure on the kneecap (patella)
  • The patella is pulled out of its groove on the femur (thigh bone) causing pain
  • The pain is often in the front of the knee, under the kneecap
  • Poor muscle strength around the knee or the hip, abnormal hip rotation, tight thigh muscles (quadriceps) are all possible contributors
  • Affects both children and adults, more often females and athletes

Symptoms & Signs

  • A dull aching pain under the kneecap
  • Pain with activities that bend the knee
  • Pain after sitting for long periods of time
  • A feeling of chalkiness or sticky resistance under the kneecap
  • Popping or noisy knees with climbing stairs (crepitus)


  • Rest, ice and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Reduced or refraining from activity for a period until the condition is reduced
  • Stretching the quadriceps muscles reduces pressure under the kneecap
  • Ortho-Kinetics carries a patella stabilizer brace that helps the kneecap track in the patellar groove of the femur
  • Our custom foot orthotics improve knee alignment and function
  • Physiotherapy will provide specific exercises to strengthen the muscles around your knee and hip

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How does it work?

Knee pain affects both young and old. Adolescents often suffer from growth plate irritations (growing pains) that resolve over time. Older adults suffer the affects of a lifetime of wear and tear. Ortho-Kinetics offers a wide variety of appliances and guidance.

Step 1

Book An Assessment

  • Call us or book a knee assessment on line
  • A knee assessment typically takes 30 to 45 minutes
  • If you have shorts, bring them(we also have shorts at the clinic)
  • Bring your prescription if you have one and x-ray CD or report

step 2


  • Review of your condition and history of injury and discuss your x-ray or MRI results
  • Examine your muscle strength, structural alignment and range of motion
  • Answer any questions you may have relating to your knee condition
  • Discuss the various bracing options, measure and fit you with the best brace to fit your needs
  • Recommend strengthening exercises, stretches or referral to complementary health professionals

step 3


  • Typically, custom foot orthotics take 2 weeks and a custom brace 1 week
  • Within a few weeks, you should be feeling less pain and experiencing greater mobility
  • With your knee brace, if you require a fitting review, we’ll have you come back and discuss how the brace is working for you
  • Perform any necessary adjustments and service the brace if necessary
  • Review exercises and stretches

Frequently Asked Questions

Foot orthotics can help various types of knee pain. With patellar femoral problems, the orthotics reduce the amount of rotation of your tibia (shin bone) which will help to mitigate your knee pain. The pain from osteoarthritis is improved by changing the amount of “bone-on-bone” pressure in the affected area of the joint.

Physiotherapy is always a smart decision after a knee injury, whether you get a brace or are fitted with foot orthotics. After a knee injury, the muscles around your knee need to be strengthened, and balance and range of motion needs to be improved.

A custom knee brace is $1750. Non-custom bracing for ligament or arthritic conditions ranges from $270 to $900. Non-custom braces for patella control range from $125 to $270

Many extended health insurers cover most of the cost of a brace. You will likely need a prescription and we will gladly provide an estimate (predetermination) before you purchase anything.

Ready to Get Started

Request An appointment

Assessments are typically 30 to 60 minutes depending on your ailment and your needs. Bring shorts to change into if necessary. Bring the footwear that you work in, and the footwear that you wear after work. If you have the prescription or referral from your referring medical professional, and the x-ray or MRI report, please bring them as well.

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